Start off the New Year Organized

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Tip of the Month:
September, 2018

The One Binder System

Several schools we work with have instituted “one binder systems” for all their students at the middle school or high school level. We frequently recommend organizational systems like this for students with ASD as poor organization is commonplace in this population. If your school does not have a common organizational system for everyone, you can customize one for your child or student. Common guidelines for developing and using an organizational system include the following:

first and foremost

Engage the student in the process of developing the system! Get his input and allow him some choice in the types of materials and strategies you use to support him.

identify needed materials (check with teachers)

For example:
• a 2 ½ inch to 3 inch binder (preferably one that zips closed)
• a portable 3 hole punch that can be stored in the binder
• a pencil case that can click into the rings of the binder
• materials for the pencil case that are needed for individual subjects (pens, pencils, erasers, pencil crayons, ruler, compass, protractor, calculator, highlighter, pencil sharpener)
• colored dividers to separate subject areas
• loose leaf lined paper

identify and create visual supports

These visual supports will be included in the binder to support compliance and independence.

For example:
• An agenda or table to document assignments (see attached assignment log sample)
• Check lists that identify steps (see attached process checklist sample)
• Self- monitoring systems (see attached self –monitoring supports sample)
• Incentives (see attached self monitoring supports sample)

include the objective of using the organizational system into the student’s IEP

Identify:
• Who will help the student use the system at school and at home?
• What strategies (other than visuals) will be used to develop student’s independent use?
• How will we evaluate progress? Consider developing a rubric such as that used at a Middle School in South Central British Columbia: http://www.sms.sd83.bc.ca/onebinderfolder/onebinderrubric.pdf (copy attached)

For more information on teaching organization to students with ASD, check out the following resources:

AttachmentSize
One Binder Rubric.pdf188.08 KB
Process Checklist.docx36.26 KB
Self-monitoring supports.docx17.98 KB
Assignment Log.docx16.99 KB

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Errorless Learning

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Errorless Learning
Tip of the Month:
August, 2018

As the name indicates, errorless learning is a teaching procedure designed to build success and minimize errors during the learning process. The main idea behind the procedure is to provide the learner with as much help as necessary for them to respond correctly at the start of the learning process and gradually reducing the amount and/or intensity of the help over time. The end goal is still to promote the learner’s independent responding. Below is a diagram of the general progression of errorless learning procedure:

There are a number of important items that people should keep in mind when running an errorless learning procedure:

• Fading the prompt too soon. One common mistake that often happens when running an errorless learning procedure is fading the prompts (help) too soon. This can lead to students making error and not learning successfully.

• Fading the amount of prompt by too much. Another mistake often seen is making too big of a jump from one prompt level to another one. For example, going from providing hand-over-hand prompt to a visual prompt. Removing too much of the help can lead, again, to students making error and not learning successfully.

• Keeping the prompt for too long. The last common mistake that often occurs during an errorless learning procedure is not fading the prompt fast enough. This can lead to prompt dependency and hinder a student’s ability to respond independently.

In order to minimize these errors, we need to collect data on student’s performance and make decision based on what the data tell us.

RESOURCES

Florida Institute of Technology – The Scott Center Autism Advisor (2018). Errorless learning [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.thescottcenter.org/advisor/resources/errorless-learning.

Relias. (2018). Errorless learning: An autism teaching strategy video [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.relias.com/resource/errorless-learning-autism-teaching-strat...

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Collaborate Problem-Solving Approach

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Tip of the Month:
June, 2018

The Collaborative Problem-Solving Approach is an approach developed by Ross Greene and J. Stuart Ablon that is aimed to reduce adversarial relationship between adults and students.

The approach views problem behaviours as an attempt by the student to solve a problem in the face of missing skills, such as social skills, executive skills, language skills, and other skills.

When a student presents a challenging behaviour towards an expectation given by an adult, there are three ways an adult can react to it.

Plan A:

Continue to impose adult will and expectations: “You must do it!”, “Stop it!”, “Because I said so!”

ADVANTAGES
• Continue to pursue adult expectations

DISADVANTAGES
• Does NOT decrease problem behaviour
• Does NOT teach missing skills
• Does NOT result in lasting solution to the problem
• Does NOT create a ‘positive’ relationship between adult & student

Plan B:

Collaborative problem-solving approach
Mutually satisfactory & realistic solution to both parties

ADVANTAGES
• Continue to pursue adult expectations
• Decreases problem behaviour
• Creates a ‘positive’ relationship between adult & student
• Teaches missing skills to the students
• Results in a durable solution to the problem

DISADVANTAGES
• NONE!

Plan C

Drop the expectation for the time being

“You can do it later”, “You don’t have to do it”
ADVANTAGES

• Decreases problem behaviour
• Creates a ‘positive’ relationship between adult & student

DISADVANTAGES
• Expectations are NOT met
• Does NOT teach missing skills
• Does NOT result in a lasting solution to the problem

As you can see from the chart above, the Plan B approach results in the best outcome for both the student and the adult involved in the situation.

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Is Bullying an Issue for Students with ASD in Your School?

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mage courtesy of <a href="http://www.freedigitalphotos.net" target="_blank">FreeDigitalPhotos.net</a>
mage courtesy of <a href="http://www.freedigitalphotos.net" target="_blank">FreeDigitalPhotos.net</a>
mage courtesy of <a href="http://www.freedigitalphotos.net" target="_blank">FreeDigitalPhotos.net</a>
Tip of the Month:
May, 2018

Most research suggests that bullying is an under-reported event in schools today. Bullying frequently occurs in areas of minimal supervision and victims may fail to report the bullying incident because of a fear of reprisal, a fear of not being believed, or a belief that reporting the incident won’t help.

Students with ASD, particularly those with Asperger’s Syndrome or High Functioning Autism (HFS), are thought to be at much higher risk for being bullied than more challenged students with ASD or than their typical peers because of their social difficulties, specifically a failure to accurately read social signals and a tendency to struggle with emotional regulation.

We’ve written tips of the month on the topic before, but the recent media focus on bullying brought the topic to the forefront yet again.
A recent visit to an intermediate classroom provided a very typical example of a school team struggling to support a student with ASD who was a victim of bullying. The student was being consistently ignored, teased or berated by his classmates, usually without the knowledge of the teacher. The victim was a kind and socially interested young boy who often acted impulsively and attempted to get the attention of his peers in ways they perceived as socially immature. The student who sat next to him often tried to re-direct the student with ASD but was not very assertive himself and on the playground backed away from physical play or conflict.

The teacher was extremely concerned about a couple of past incidents and had talked to her class about being kind to the victimized student on previous occasions. She modeled respect and understanding in her interactions with all the students, but the classroom had several needy students, including another student with Asperger’s Syndrome. The learning assistance teacher had created a social skills group with two supportive peers and the victimized student in which she tried to help the victimized student develop strategies to avoid bullies.

There was a strong element in her lessons of improving his social thinking so that he could understand why his behaviours were making him a target for bullying, but the primary strategy taught was to teach him to “walk away” (which, of course, left him with no social interaction).

The student with ASD tried very hard to be included but his efforts frequently failed. He was frustrated and sad that others didn’t like him or were mean to him even when he tried. More and more he was resisting coming to school, or was avoiding social situations by hiding in the washroom or retreating to the The problem was clearly multi-faceted and was not being successfully remedied by trying to improve the social skills of the student with ASD or by reminding his classmates to be kind.

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How common is this picture and what can we do as teachers and parents to make a difference?

How do you know if there is problem in your school?

ask the kids!

Research suggests that other students are often the most reliable judges of who are bullies and victims in their peer groups. Teach the difference between “ratting” and reporting. Remind bystanders of their role and encourage reporting to a designated adult such as the school counsellor.

listen to concerns expressed by parents, students and colleagues.

If anyone notices a change in the behaviour or attitude of the student with ASD, it can be a sign that bullying or being ostracized is taking place. Take the concerns seriously and investigate! You can read about some of the common signs of bullying in Barbara Coloroso’s Bully Handout for Teens.

what makes a difference?

Here’s what the research shows:
positive behaviour supports
Model and reinforce the concepts of support, kindness and acceptance. Adults should never ignore unkindness or bullying in their presence as that sends a message that these behaviours are tolerated or condoned.
school wide behavioural expectations
Implement programs that provide clear consistent messages about how students are expected to treat each other, and that reward these behaviours.

peer sensitivity training
Encourage empathy in peers by teaching them about ASD and explaining why students with ASD behave as they do. Provide positive information about Asperger’s and HFA rather than focusing only on weaknesses. Help peers understand that students with ASD struggle with social and communication skills and ask for their help in redirecting their classmate.

peer mentoring programs
Train and assign peer mentors who share similar interests with the student with ASD (strength based approach). Provide opportunities for the individual with ASD to use their strengths and affinities.

address the issue of bystanders
Promote a culture in which bystanders are rewarded for stepping up to defend a victim. In Barbara Coloroso’s book, The Bully, the Bullied and the Bystander, she states, “a potent force is kids themselves showing bullies that they will not be looked up to, nor will their cruel behaviour be tolerated or condoned.”

So we say… take it seriously.

The attitude of “kids will be kids” should be relegated to history when it comes to bullying behaviours. With increased awareness, many schools have made great inroads in reducing overt school bullying and violence.

We recommend the following resources to help your school understand how to more effectively deal with the issue of bullying, particularly with regard to students with ASD:

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Reinforcer or Break

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Tip of the Month:
May, 2018

Often, we look at reinforcer (or reward) and break as the same thing where in reality they serve different purposes.

A break is an activity that helps a person bring themselves back into a zone where they are at their optimal condition for participating and engaging in an activity. A break:
· Is something that everyone needs throughout the day
· Is typically short in duration (5 minutes or less)
· Should always ends with the student returning to the current task
· Is NOT something that the student needs to earn
· Is NOT access to preferred item/activity

A reinforcer is a preferred item or activity that the student receives contingent on the student completing a given task or instruction. A reinforcer:
· Uses a preferred item or activity based from a completed preference profile (see Resources for example)
· Can only be accessed by completing a given task or instruction
· Is typically short in duration (5 minutes or less)

To review, a break is a self-regulation activity designed to help a student stay engaged throughout the day, while a reinforcer is an item or activity that helps motivate a student to complete a given task or instruction.

Resources

GoNoodle, Inc. (2015). Press play on movement and mindfulness. Retrieved from https://www.gonoodle.com/
CosmicKids. (2018). Welcome to Cosmic Kids!. Retrieved from http://www.cosmickids.com/

Your Kids OT. (2016). Brain breaks to help concentration in the classroom!. Retrieved from https://www.yourkidsot.com/blog/brain-breaks-to-help-concentration-in-th...

AFIRM Team. (2015). R+ reinforcer selection list in PDF. Chapel Hill, NC: National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorder, FPG Child Development Center, University of North Carolina. Retrieved from http://afirm.fpg.unc.edu/resources/r-positive-reinforcer-selection-list-pd

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Handling Teasing

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Tip of the Month:
February, 2018

Laugeson (2014) defined teasing as any disparaging remark directed toward another person. Often, the teaser is reinforced by the attention that he or she gets from the crowd and/or the pleasure he or she gets from the discomfort of the victim. Research has shown that socially rejected teens, much like most of our students with ASD, tend to get angry, upset, or physically aggressive when they are teased, while more socially accepted teens often respond to teasing with humor or assertion. Understanding these can provide us with a framework on teaching our students how to respond to teaching.

How to Handle Teasing (Laugeson, 2014)
1. Act like what the person said didn’t bother you.
2. Act like what the person said was lame or stupid.
3. Give a short verbal comeback, such as one of the examples below:
“Whatever!”
“Yeah, and?”
“Is that supposed to be funny?”
“So what?”
“Who cares”
“Anyway….”
“Ookay…”
“And your point is…”
“Big deal”
“And why should I care?”
4.Sound bored OR Have an attitude when you use the comebacks. Decide what is more comfortable for you to use.
5. Give a nonverbal comeback. Pick one that you can do and is comfortable for you to do:
-Rolling your eyes
-Shrugging your shoulders
-Shaking your head
-Be ready with several verbal comebacks. The teasing won’t stop after just one comeback.
-After giving a few verbal comebacks, remove yourself by casually looking away or slowly walking away

Role-play various scenarios with your student in a safe environment until he or she is comfortable with giving both verbal and non-verbal comebacks. Focus on the tone of voice and body language as you are practicing with the student.

Important Note:

  • Don’t ignore the teasing
  • Don’t walk away without giving verbal comebacks
  • Don’t tell an adult right away
  • Don’t tease back
  • Don’t banter (friendly, playful teasing) – very risky to engage in
  • Teasing will get worse before it gets better – encourage the student to persevere and continue to use the strategy
  • Expect the teaser to try again
  • Don’t use verbal comebacks with physically aggressive peers OR with adults (e.g. teacher, parent)
  • Reference

    Laugeson, E.A. (2014). The PEERS® Curriculum for School-Based Professionals: Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. New York: Routledge.

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School | Home Communication

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Tip of the Month:
January, 2018

In 2012, Zablotsky, Boswell, and Smith conducted a survey with parents of children with ASD regarding their involvement with the school system. The result showed that parents of students with ASD were more likely to attend meetings, talk to the school team, and help with homework. However, these parents are also among the most dissatisfied group when it comes to the level of communication between school and home. The study also showed positive correlation between parental involvement and parental satisfaction with the school system.

Understanding that communication between home and school can have a positive impact on the student’s skill development and on the relationship between parents and teachers, it is essential that an effective and efficient form of communication be established at the beginning of the school year.

An ideal communication tool should be:
• Easy to understand
• Contains all essential information for both school and home
• Quick to complete (less than 5 minutes)

Please see attached for an example of communication sheet. Remember, the communication should be individualized for each student.

Reference

Broun, L. (2012 August). Strategies for Effective Home/School Communication. Retrieved from http://www.autismontario.com/client/aso/ao.nsf/docs/f76e522c746aa1fb85257bc1006181da/$file/home+and+school+communication.pdf

Zablotsky, B., Boswell, K., & Smith, C. (2012). An evaluation of school involvement and satisfaction of parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. American Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 117(4), 316-330.

AttachmentSize
Communication Book template160.34 KB

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Preparing for Winter vacation

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Preparing for Winter vacation
Tip of the Month:
December, 2017

As winter vacation fast approaches, it might be a good idea to start preparing our students for the transition between school to holidays. Research has shown that individuals with ASD transition better if they are informed ahead of time and if they can predict what is coming.

One way to support the transition is through the use of calendar (see Winter Vacation Calendar TEMPLATE). Using a calendar that shows when the student is going to school and when he or she is not presents a visual prompt to let the student know of what is happening the next day. The calendar can also go to the parents so they can use it during the holidays to prepare the students for returning to school.

Using the calendar with the student (see Winter Vacation Calendar EXAMPLE)

1. At the end of the day, show the student the calendar and inform him/her of what it is for (e.g., “Let’s look at how many more school days before holiday”).
2. Prompt the student, if necessary, to locate the day’s date
3. Have the student mark off the date (e.g., using a marker, put a sticker on it, etc)
4. With the student, count out the remaining days until the holiday begins
5. Show the student of what is the plan for the next day (e.g., “Look at the calendar. Are we coming to school tomorrow?”)
6. Continue doing so until the last day of school
7. Send the calendar home and demonstrate to the parents how to use it to prepare for coming back to school in January

AttachmentSize
Winter Vacation Calendar EXAMPLE.docx32.6 KB
Winter Vacation Calendar TEMPLATE.docx24.33 KB

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Transitioning from an iPad

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Tip of the Month:
November, 2017

With the increasing popularity of iPad and Apps, students with ASD are given access to more technologies than ever before. One of the challenges that parents and teachers face is to successfully transition the students off the device and on to another activity. It is well documented that individuals with ASD struggle with transition in general (Hume, 2008). This can be due to their needs for predictability, lack of understanding of what is going to happen next, or challenges when their pattern of behaviours is disrupted.
There are many transition strategies out there that can help make these transitions more successful.

Visual schedule
A visual schedule showing the student the sequence of events that will happen can help build predictability for the students. This can be as simple as a First..Then.. visual.

  • At the start of the first activity, show the visual and go through the visual with the student.
  • As the first activity is done, inform the student that the activity is “finished” or “all done” and direct the student to look at what is the next activity going to be.
  • Praise and reinforce the student for successful transition.

Timer & countdown
A timer can provide a visual cue for the students of how much time remains in the current activity. Be aware of your student’s sensory profile to determine the type of timer that works best for your student.

A countdown can serve as a warning signal to prepare our students for the end of an activity. The length of the countdown (seconds or minutes) will vary depending on your student’s ability and the activity itself. A countdown can be presented in various ways:

  • Vocal countdown (e.g. “iPad is done in 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, all done”)
  • Countdown using fingers
  • Countdown strip (see attached)

Guided access
iPad and iPhone has a built-in feature that will enable you to control access to the iPad including setting a timer and locking a screen that can be monitored using a passcode. Please see attached handout on how to enable and set up Guided Access for your iPad/iPhone.

Reference
Hume, K. (2008). Transition time: Helping individuals on the autism spectrum move successfully from one activity to another. Retrieved from https://www.iidc.indiana.edu/pages/transition-time-helping-individuals-o...

AttachmentSize
Countdown Strip22.59 KB
FirstThenVisual21.15 KB
iPad Guided Access3.24 MB

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Teaching Sexual Health

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Tip of the Month:
September, 2017

Why teach sexual health to students with ASD?
People with Autism are like all people and have the right to learn all they can to enable them to become a sexually healthy person. However, because of to the social challenges a person with autism faces, learning about sexual health can be even more important. Many individuals with ASD do not have even basic knowledge about sexuality. Many individuals with ASD do knot know when and whom to ask questions with regards to sex and sexuality. Teaching sexual health is important to help prevent the spread of STD’s, unwanted pregnancies, and abuse. Many young people with ASD or other disability are at an increased risk of sexual abuse. Many young people do not know the difference between an appropriate and inappropriate touch. Often sex and sexuality, as serious topics, are ones many of us would rather avoid than address. This may be more so when the issues is sexuality and students with ASD. Individuals with ASD may have sexual feelings that are “out-of-sync” with their level of social development and awareness. As children grow, their social and sexual skills sets are likely to become different to their chronological age and appearance. Other people, however, will base expectations on their chronological age, and NOT their developmental age.

How to teach sexual health:
Start earlier rather than later! Preparation is key! It might take our students with ASD to understand and process information and thus starting earlier gives them more time to come to terms and understand important skills and concepts. TEACH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Communication related Handicapped Children) suggest that parents and professionals begin the discussion about sexuality at around the age of 10 which is (two-three years before the average child enters puberty. Students with ASD can be reluctant to change, so it is important to give them plenty of notice regarding what will happen when they enter puberty.

Be clear, direct, and honest!
It is important to answer your child or student’s questions about puberty, their body and sexuality. This helps the student understand that puberty and sexuality is not something to be embarrassed about and that they can trust you. Using clear and correct terminology to describe body parts is also essential and is the most effective approach when teaching sexual health. Using visual supports is a key strategy for students with ASD. You can use visual supports to explain basics of development, such as showing the student photos of themselves as babies and toddlers, and of other children at different ages to help your student to understand about when puberty happens in life.

You can also use a body outline, labelling all of the body parts and pointing out how each part will change and talking about what fluids come from each part (sweat, tears, urine, semen, menstrual blood).

Teach private versus public!
It is vital to give students guidelines about the difference between private and public. Some topics that can be covered are: What parts of my body are private? Who can touch certain parts of my body? What body parts can I touch on other people? What is a private room and what can I do in that room (Masturbate, undress)?

Resources list
• Making sense of sex by S.Atwood and J.Powell
• A 5 is against the Law! Social boundaries straight up! By K.D. Buron
• Intimate relationships and sexual health: A curriculum for teaching adolescents/adults with high functioning ASD and other social challenges by C.Davies and M. Dubie
• Teachngsexualhealth.ca (go to teacher’s portal- lesson plans- lesson by grade-differing abilities)

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